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The employment relationship in the U. ISSN Preview. Identification Number: Download Statistics. Downloads Downloads per month over past year. This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version The Employment Relationship in the U. You may not engage in further distribution of the material or use it for any profit-making activities or any commercial gain.

In addition, we used an obligations fulfillment measure, but we did not take into account the promises, which are the expectations that individuals have about the different psychological contract areas. Furthermore, the sample involved in our study worked in a specific organizational context and all employees were placed with a permanent contract. For instance, it is plausible that the cadets perceive they have lack of job alternatives, and this could elicit different reciprocal reactions e.

Thus, the peculiarities of the context could limit the generalisability of our findings and have to be taken into account when interpreting our results. In future research, it would be appropriate to investigate organizations operating in different sectors or other types of formal employment contracts and include specific organizational factors that could affect the psychological contract development. Finally, concerning limitations related to our research design, we are aware that the longitudinal research design is not without problems Ployhart and Vandenberg, For instance, both stages we studied correspond to training.

However, another important step for re-defining the psychological contract is when new agents start working in operational contexts Institutes. Further, the two stages could be affected by the honeymoon-hangover pattern Boswell et al. Thus, it would be appropriate in future research to do a longitudinal study with a larger number of observation times, in order to monitor the development of a psychological contract in a broader time frame. MF designed and directed the research project.

MF and SL conceived of the presented idea. MF and BB developed the theory. SL performed the analyses. RS contributed to results interpretation and to a critical revision of the paper. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final version of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Subjects participating in the longitudinal study Study 2, T1—T2, n.

Afterwards, cadets attending the training course in other schools which took part later to the research project , added to them, thus composing the remaining part of the cross-sectional sample Study 1, T2, n. All cadets were hired in the same public competition. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Organizational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jan 25; Accepted Mar The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract This study explores dynamic processes in the development of the psychological contract, focusing on the interaction of obligations related to the two parties i. Keywords: psychological contract, perceived mutual obligations, interaction, newcomers, longitudinal study.

Psychological contract

Introduction The increasing environmental uncertainty, labor market mobility, and ongoing changes in organizational structures and work processes, impact the relationships between employees and organizations. Psychological Contract and Work-Related Outcomes The psychological contract is a mental model through which employees assess events happening at work.

Study 1 The first aim of this paper was to analyze the specific contribution and the reciprocal moderator role of both fulfillments of obligations on attitudinal outcomes, examining whether the interaction between the organizational and employee obligations fulfillment could represent a factor that strengthens the effects of the fulfillment of obligations on subsequent attitudes, adding a specific effect beyond the main direct effects of the fulfillment by each party.

Open in a separate window. Method Participants and Procedure Participants were correctional police officer cadets, hired with a permanent employment contract by the Ministry of Justice Penitentiary Administration and following a month mandatory training, in order to work in prisons. Study 2 The first study allowed for verification of the spillover effects of fulfillment of mutual obligations and their interaction on commitment and turnover intention.

Method Participants and Procedure Subjects considered for Study 2 were a subsample of cadets from the previous sample. Data Analysis To test the aforementioned hypotheses of mediation and moderated mediation, a regression analysis using bootstrapping resampling methods 1, bootstrap simulations was conducted using PROCESS Model 7 Hayes, Table 4 Results of the moderated mediation model in Study 2.

Limitations and Further Research A number of limitations of this study must be noted. Author Contributions MF designed and directed the research project.

Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Footnotes 1 The Justice Administration manages training of new cadets in several schools located throughout the country. References Addae H. Organizational commitment and intentions to quit.

An examination of the moderating effects of psychological contract breach on Trinidad and Tobago.

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Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Perceptions of employment relations and permanence in the organization: mediating effects of affective commitment in relations of psychological contract and intention to quit. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. The psychological contract in retrospect and prospect.

The Employment Relationship: A Psychological Perspective

Does psychological contract breach decrease proactive behaviors? The moderating effect of emotion regulation. Group Organ. Psychological contract breach and job attitudes: a meta-analysis of age as moderator. One perception, two perspectives: measuring psychological contract dimensionality through the Psychological Contract Content Questionnaire. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York, NY: Wiley. Changes in newcomer job satisfaction over time: examining the pattern of honeymoons and hangovers. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. A daily diary study of affective responses to psychological contract breach and exceeded promises.

Testing the differential effect of changes in psychological contract breach and fulfillment. A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behavior. Exploring reciprocity through the lens of the psychological contract: employee and employer perspectives. Work Organ. The psychological contract and individual differences: the role of exchange and creditor ideologies. London: Sage Publications; , 17— Mutuality and reciprocity in the psychological contracts of employees and employers.

Balanced versus unbalanced psychological contracts in temporary and permanent employment: associations with employee attitudes. Doctoral dissertation, Ghent University, Ghent. Psychological contract development during organizational socialization: adaptation to reality and the role of reciprocity. Sensemaking during organizational entry: changes in newcomer information seeking and the relationship with psychological contract fulfilment.

Toward a better understanding of psychological contract breach: a study of customer service employees.

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    The norm of reciprocity: a preliminary statement. A Regression-based Approach. New York, NY: Guilford. The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: not all social exchange violations are created equal. The interactive effects of psychological contract breach and organizational politics on perceived organizational support: evidence from two longitudinal studies.

    Psychological contract violation: impacts on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among Australian senior public servants. HRM Res.

    The Employment Relationship: A Psychological Perspective

    Breach and fulfillment of the psychological contract: a comparison of traditional and expanded views. Latent growth models of individual change: the case of newcomer adjustment. Men, Management and Mental Health. Psychological contract breach in a Chinese context: an integrative approach.

    The Employment Relationship: A Psychological Perspective - CRC Press Book

    Surprise and sense-making: what newcomers experience and how they cope in unfamiliar organisational settings. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Psychological contracting and newcomer socialization. Can you get a better deal elsewhere? The effects of psychological contract replicability on organizational commitment over time.

    Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modelling approach. Newcomer psychological contracts and employee socialization. Does perceived balance in obligations matter? Longitudinal research: the theory, design, and analysis of change. Effects of psychological contract breach on performance of IT employees: the mediating role of affective commitment.

    Effects of psychological contract breach on organizational citizenship behavior: insights from the Group Value Model. Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Changing obligations and the psychological contract: a longitudinal study. Schema, promise and mutuality: the building blocks of the psychological contract. Human resource practices: administrative contract makers.

    Assessing psychological contracts: issues, alternatives and measures. A comparison of structural models representing turnover cognitions. Towards a dynamic model of the psychological contract. Theory Soc. Job stress and burnout among correctional officers: a literature review. Stress Manage. Organizational Psychology. Examining degree of balance and level of obligation in the employment relationship: a social exchange approach. Integrating expectations, experiences and psychological contract violations: a longitudinal study of new professionals. A model of psychological contract creation upon organizational entry.

    Career Dev. Psychological contract breach and outcomes: combining meta-analysis and structural equation model. Psycothema 20 —