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In , he joined the microwave department of Electtronica S. L where he was responsible for microwave designs. In his 23 years of design experience he has covered both passive and active microwave components, including filters, amplifiers, oscillators, and synthesizers. He is the author of four books including the present one as well as 12 papers. Request permission to reuse content from this site. Undetected location. NO YES. Microwave and RF Engineering.

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Essco Calibration Laboratory - RF/Microwave and Fiber Optic

An essential text for both students and professionals, combining detailed theory with clear practical guidance This outstanding book explores a large spectrum of topics within microwave and radio frequency RF engineering, encompassing electromagnetic theory, microwave circuits and components.

With examples taken from the authors' own experience, this book also covers: network and signal theory; electronic technology with guided electromagnetic propagation; microwave circuits such as linear and non-linear circuits, resonant circuits and cavities, monolithic microwave circuits MMICs , wireless architectures and integrated circuits; passive microwave components, control components; microwave filters and matching networks. Simulation files are included in a CD Rom, found inside the book. In the case of fixed wireless communications, the infrastructure is installed in discrete locations, with line-of-sight LOS paths between the locations so that radio waves can propagate through the atmosphere without obstructions.

The extreme example of a long LOS wireless link is a satellite, with a clear path between an earth station and the satellite orbiting Earth. A more typical example is the collection of cellular communications antennas and their towers found on hills or high points in the terrain, often along roadways.

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Wireless communications infrastructure can be found in these single locations, and readily accessed for maintenance. Signals from multiple individual fixed wireless links are routed through relay stations that join multiple connected wireless links for nearly instantaneous wireless communications across long distances.

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The infrastructure of an optical communications system, on the other hand, is distributed from one communications location to another. Fiber-optic cables must be installed from one point to the next to enable optical communications. The quality of those cables is important to the performance of an optical communications system, as is the integrity of the splices between sections of optical cable. Whereas a fixed microwave link sends information through the air between two points, a fiber-optic link depends upon these cables, which must be installed with care and then maintained over time, since they can deteriorate and wear out.

Optical cables can break or be cut and must be repaired, but first the fault must be found, often in many miles of optical cable, and this is not a trivial task. Business models for laying fiber-optic cables typically assume a year lifespan for the capital investment of installing the optical network equipment, which may also include links to individual subscribers, known as fiber-to-the-hole FTTH optical communications.

It can slow down significantly when it travels through a medium such as the glass or plastic fibers used in optical cables. While fixed wireless systems are designed for LOS links between transmitter and receiver, optical communications systems typically do not have the luxury of a straight path and must often wind around corners through a city or in an office building for their signal paths. As with light reflecting off walls around a corner, every bend in the cable decreases the speed of the light propagating through that cable.

Microwave Engineering

As a result, in terms of pure communications speed, fixed wireless links typically provide faster connections than optical links. It takes into account signal switching and any delays through the propagation medium. The latency of a fiber-optic system is typically longer than that of a fixed wireless link for the same distance, and increases significantly with increases in link distance compared to a fixed wireless link. Perhaps the key differentiator between fixed wireless links and optical communications systems is in bandwidth.


Fixed wireless links and all wireless systems , since they are sending signals through free space rather than through an optical fiber or other confined medium, operate within fixed segments of frequency spectrum that must be licensed for different applications to avoid interference from too many signals within the same frequency range in the same location. As a result, the limited bandwidth of any wireless system will also limit the amount of data that can be transferred between points at any one time. The bandwidth of an optical fiber is potentially as wide as the optical portion of the electromagnetic EM spectrum, or about 10 THz or more.

Of course, to take advantage of such bandwidth, a transmitter and receiver are needed at both ends of a link. Fiber-optic cables have replaced metal cables in many fixed communications installations, such as in warehouses and office buildings, and serve as communications backbones in many types of wireless communications systems, including in base stations for the latest 4G LTE mobile wireless communications systems.